Interdit bancaire : comment lever l’interdiction ?

Une interdiction bancaire est une mesure de sûreté prise par une banque. Quand un tireur émet un chèque sans provision (c’est-à-dire que les fonds disponibles sur le compte bancaire ne sont pas suffisants pour payer le chèque), alors le tireur peut être sanctionné par un interdit bancaire. Pour régulariser sa situation, le titulaire du compte peut avoir plusieurs options.

Régularisation par paiement

Cette option consiste à payer tous les chèques émis sans provision et régler l’incident de paiement. Les intérêts de retard et les frais générés par le rejet n’entrent pas en compte, mais restent toutefois à la charge du tireur.

Selon l’article L.131-73 du Code Monétaire et Financier, le tireur peut régulariser son cas grâce à deux modalités de paiement :

  • Le titulaire règle le montant du chèque par d’autres moyens de paiement (par exemple en espèces). Ainsi, l’acquittement du chèque ne sera plus utile. Si l’interdit bancaire est dû à un incident de carte bleue, alors il suffira de régler le montant des sommes dues.
  • Le tireur peut approvisionner son compte du montant qu’il doit. La banque tirée bloque alors la somme au profit du porteur pendant un an. Le point de départ de ce délai est généralement fixé à la date du paiement.

Une fois l’approvisionnement ou les paiements effectués, la banque tirée doit préciser sur l’enregistrement de l’incident de paiement que le cas a été régularisé. Elle doit ensuite délivrer au titulaire une attestation de régularisation, comme prévue dans l’article R. 131-23 du Code Monétaire et Financier.

Dans cette démarche, la banque du titulaire se charge d’informer la Banque de France de la régularisation du compte au plus tard deux jours ouvrés après avoir constaté la justification. La Banque de France informera à son tour tous les banquiers du titulaire au plus tard deux jours ouvrés après avoir reçu l’avis de la banque du titulaire. Au bout de trois jours au maximum, après avoir reçu l’avis de la Banque de France, ces banquiers doivent alors avoir connaissance de la levée de l’interdiction bancaire.

Contestation de l’interdiction

Il arrive qu’un titulaire fasse l’objet d’un fichage au Fichier Central des Chèques (FCC) sans raisons justificatives (par exemple suite à une erreur de la banque). Le titulaire aura donc le droit de demander des rectifications auprès de la banque, ou d’autres personnes en cas de complication du problème.

  • Demande de rectification de l’agence bancaire :
    Le titulaire faisant objet de l’interdiction non justifiée doit demander à son agence bancaire de rectifier ses bases de données internes. La demande peut se faire au guichet ou par écrit. Une demande peut également être déposée auprès du FCC, si cela s’avère nécessaire.
  • Recours au médiateur bancaire et au FCC :
    Si la correction n’est pas encore effectuée après 2 jours ouvrés, le titulaire du compte pourra faire appel à un médiateur bancaire, et contacter directement le FCC.
  • Dépôt d’une plainte :
    Si au bout de 2 mois, le cas n’est toujours pas régularisé, le client peut porter plainte pour faire valoir son droit de rectification. Cette plainte sera alors déposée auprès de la Cnil (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés) ou auprès de Procureur de la République.

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